Electromagnetics is one the most important subjects of the electrical engineering curriculum.
Understanding the laws governing magnetic and electric fields is vital to understanding the fundamentals of the functioning of electric and magnetic devices and machines.
Additionally, understanding the fundamental theories of electromagnetic waves is essential for understanding the action-at-a-distance electromagnetic phenomenon and systems. Since most electromagnetic variables are a
the function of three-dimensional space coordinates and times, electromagnetics is more complicated than electric circuit theory.
A thorough understanding typically will require a series of two-semester courses or three courses within quarters. However, some electrical engineering programs don’t schedule this many hours for electromagnetics.
Purpose of the eBook Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics
The book aims to address the need for an educational resource that quickly covers the fundamentals of electromagnetism easily and clearly but also covers crucial engineering application topics like electric motors, transmission lines, waveguides, antenna arrays, antennas, and radar systems.
I believe this is among the main issues that students face in studying electromagnetics: their inability to grasp the concept behind being able to understand an electromagnetic concept.
The conventional inductive approach of starting with experiments and then gradually synthesizing the laws into Maxwell’s equations tend to be a bit fragmented and not cohesive.
The introduction of the gradient, curl, and divergence operations is thought to be unintentional and random
However, the extreme of beginning with the complete set of Maxwell’s extremely complex equations, as fundamental postulates, is likely to provoke confusion and discontent in students from the beginning.
The issue of the necessity and the sufficiency in these equations isn’t considered, and the idea for the
electromagnetic model remains undefined.
Contribution of the EBook to Engineering
This book develops the electromagnetic model by using an axiomatic method by dividing the model into steps:
First to study static electrical fields, followed by static magnetic fields, and finally, for a field that changes over time, which leads to Maxwell’s Equations.
The mathematical foundation of every step is Helmholtz’s theory which says that a vector field can be measured to be within an additive constant when both its divergence and curl are all specified.
The physical basis for this theory could come from the notion that the difference in the strength of a field vector is an indicator of the strength of the flow source and the curvature of the field an indication of the strength of the vortex source.
It is determined if the strengths of the flow source and vortex source are defined in the vector field. To construct the electrostatic model for free space, it is required to define the single vector (namely the intensity of the electric field) by defining its curvature and divergence as postulates.
The rest of the electrostatic relations and free space, such as Gauss’s and Coulomb’s laws, are derived from these two simple postulates.
The relationships in materials can be constructed using the idea of similar charge distributions
for dielectrics with polarization. Similar to the model of magneto statics of free space, it is essential to specify a singular magnetic flux density vector, B, delineating its divergence and curvature as postulated.
All other formulas are derived from these two concepts. The notion of equivalent current density formulates the relationships in materials.
The value of these postulates is in their ability to give results that correspond to evidence from experiments. In the time-varying fields, both magnetic and electric field intensities are correlated.
Overview of the Chapters
It gives some reasons to study electromagnetism. The book also introduces the sources of the functions and the fundamental field quantity, as well as three constants universal to define open space within the electromagnetic model.
This chapter covers the basics of vector algebra and calculus and the relationship between Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems.
It discusses the fundamental principles and techniques for solving electrostatic challenges.
This chapter is about the steady electric current field and resistance calculations.
This chapter explains static magnetic fields.
It deals with electromagnetic fields that change in time and begins with
Faraday’s law on electromagnetic induction. Then, it is followed by Maxwell’s equations and wave equations.
This chapter explains the properties of electromagnetic plane waves.
The theory and the applications for transmission lines are discussed in this chapter.
Additional engineering applications for electromagnetic waves and fields are covered in
This chapter discussed Waveguides and cavity resonances along with antennas antenna arrays and radar systems.
The final section of each chapter is a summary that includes bulleted points that summarize the major issues discussed throughout the chapter.
We are hoping that these pedagogical tools will prove helpful in helping students master electromagnetics and the applications it has.
What Students Will Learn?
This book will guide you to help you begin the journey to learning about engineering electromagnetics. Two questions might immediately come to mind: What exactly is electromagnetics? And why is it so important?
The short answer to the first will be electromagnetics studies the impact of electric charge either in motion or at rest.
It is crucial because electromagnetic theory is vital in understanding electromagnetic phenomena, the fundamentals of operation, and the properties of magnetic, electric, or electromagnetic technology devices.
Modern society is heavily dependent on electromagnetic equipment and systems. Consider, for
instance, microwave ovens, cathode-ray oscilloscopes and radios, television, radar satellite communications, automated instrument-landing systems, and electronic energy conversion (motors and generators).
Electromagnetism’s basic principles have been in use for more than 100 years. It is essential to create a reliable theoretical model to understand an advanced scientific field in a structured and logical method.
It typically consists of a handful of fundamental quantities and some basic postulates (hypotheses also known as axioms).
Other relationships and implications are then derived by analyzing these postulates. For example,
studying classical mechanics based on the theoretical model based on the concepts of acceleration, mass, velocity, force, momentum, and energy.
The primary postulates of this theory are Newton’s law of motion, the conservation of momentum, and the conservation of energy.
These postulates can’t be drawn from other theorems; however, any other relations and formulas used in non-relativistic mechanics (situations in which the speed of motion is insignificant relative to the velocity of light) can be derived using these postulates.
Similar to our study of electromagnetics,
we must create an electromagnetic theory first.
In the final section, connected sections, at intervals, you will find REVIEW questions, which are designed to provide a quick overview of the subject matter that was just covered and to strengthen your understanding of the subject.
You must be able to answer these questions confidently. If not, revisit these sections to clear your doubts.
Details of the Book
Name: Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics
Authors: D. K. Cheng
Size: 61.7 MB
No. of Pages: 511
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Learning about electromagnetics is an intellectual adventure. This book is an aid, yet you must carry
your passion and determination. While you explore the realm of engineering electromagnetics,
expect you’ll have a rewarding and fulfilling experience.